Medical Terms

Index of comprehensive terminology on medical diseases and conditions, a listing. Covers all aspects of medicine produced by doctors.

A (adenine)

In genetics, A stands for adenine, one member of the A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair in DNA. The other base pair in DNA is G-C (guanine-cytosine).Each base pair forms a "rung of the DNA ladder.&q

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A-

Prefix indicating the absence or depletion of something: for example, aphagia (not eating) or aphonia (voiceless). The related prefix an- is usually used before a vowel, as in anemia (without blood) a

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a.c.

Abbreviation on a prescription meaning before meals; from the Latin "ante cibum", before meals. This is one of a number of abbreviations of Latin terms that have traditionally been used in w

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AAA

Abdominal aortic aneurysm : is a localized enlargement of the abdominal aorta such that the diameter is greater than 3 cm or more than 50% larger than normal diameter..

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AAAS

Spoken of as the "triple-AS", the American Association for the Advancement of Science is an organization concerned not only withthe biomedical sciences but with all of the sciences. The AAAS

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AAD

American Association of Dermatology, one  of many important professional societies in the health arena. The AMA (the American Medical Association) is a better known example in the US. Only a smal

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AANAT

The synbol for the enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and for the gene that encodes it. AANAT is present in animals, bacteria and yeast but in no other living organisms. AANAT belongs to the la

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AAO

1. Alert and oriented.2. American Association of Ophthalmology, a professional organization.3. American Academy of Otolaryngology, a professional organization.4. American Association of Orthodontists,

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AAOS (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)

The professional organization of American orthopedists. Literally, the practice of bone straightening, orthopedics is the branch of surgery that is broadly concerned with the skeletal system (bones).

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B cell

 A type of white blood cell and, specifically, a type of lymphocyte. Many B cells mature into what are called plasma cell that produce antibodies (proteins) necessary to fight off infections

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B virus

An infectious agent commonly found among macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, and cynomolgus monkeys. Monkeys infected with this virus usually have no or mild symptoms. In

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B-type natriuretic peptide

A 32-amino-acid polypeptide secreted by the ventricles of the heart in response to excessive stretching of heart muscle cells. The levels of B-type natriuretic peptide are elevated in patients with co

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B. burgdorferi

Short for Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease. Once the full name of a bacterium has been given, it is customary to refer to it in its short form. For example, "Borrelia burgdorferi.

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AAA

Abdominal aortic aneurysm :is a localized enlargement of the abdominal aorta such that the diameter is greater than 3 cm or more than 50% larger than normal diameter.

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AAS

Aarskog–Scott syndrome  is a rare disease inherited as autosomal dominant or X-linked and characterized by short stature, facial abnormalities, skeletal and genital anomalies.

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ACC

Agenesis of the corpus callosum :  is a rare birth defect (congenital disorder) in which there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum.

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ABCD syndrome

Albinism, black lock, cell migration disorder :  is the acronym for albinism, black lock, cell migration disorder of the neurocytes of the gut, and sensorineural deafness. It has been found to be

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ACS

Acute coronary syndrome : is a syndrome (set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.

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AD

Alzheimer's Disease :  is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time.

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AD

Attachment disorder :  is a broad term intended to describe disorders of mood, behavior, and social relationships arising from a failure to form normal attachments to primary care giving figures

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ADD

Attention deficit disorder :  is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.[1][2] It is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior w

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ADEM

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis :  is a rare autoimmune disease marked by a sudden, widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. As well as causing the brain and spinal co

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ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.It is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior

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AF

Atrial fibrillation :  is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating.

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AGS

Aicardi–Goutieres syndrome :  is a rare, usually early onset childhood, inflammatory disorder most typically affecting the brain and the skin (neurodevelopmental disorder).

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AHC

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood : is a rare neurological disorder of uncertain etiology.

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ADIS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome :  is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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AIP

Acute intermittent porphyria :  is a rare autosomal dominant metabolic disorder affecting the production of heme, the oxygen-binding prosthetic group of hemoglobin. It is characterized by a defic

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ALA DD

Doss porphyria/ALA dehydratase deficiency/Plumboporphyria :  is a neuropsychiatric condition, disease can present during early childhood (as well as in adulthood) with acute neurologic symptoms t

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ALI

Acute lung injury :  is a medical condition occurring in critically ill patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs. ARDS is not a particular disease, rather it is a clinical p

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ALL

Acute lymphoblastic lymphoma : 

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AMD

Age-related macular degeneration : is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.

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AOS

Apraxia of speech :  acquired oral motor speech disorder affecting an individual's ability to translate conscious speech plans into motor plans, which results in limited and difficult speech

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APA

Aldosterone-producing adenoma :  is excess production of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands resulting in low renin levels.

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APS

Antiphospholipid syndrome : is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. APS provokes blood clots (thrombosis) in both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related

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ARD

Adult Refsum disease : is an autosomal recessive[5] neurological disease that results from the over-accumulation of phytanic acid in cells and tissues.

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ARDS

Acute respiratory distress syndrome :  is a medical condition occurring in critically ill patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs.

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ARND

Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder

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AS

Ankylosing spondylitis :  is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.

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AS

Asperger syndrome : is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior a

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ASD

Atrial septal defect :  is a congenital heart defect in which blood flows between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart. 

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ASDs

Autism spectrum disorders : a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders in the DSM-5. Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder must present two types of symptoms: Defic

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A-T

Ataxia-telangiectasia :  is a rare, neurodegenerative, autosomal recessive disease causing severe disability. Ataxia refers to poor coordination and telangiectasia to small dilated blood vessels,

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AVMs

Arteriovenous malformations : is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system. 

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BBS

Bashful bladder syndrome 

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BEB

Benign essential blepharospasm :  is any abnormal contraction or twitch of the eyelid. In most cases, symptoms last for a few days then disappear without treatment, but sometimes the twitching is

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BD

Binswanger's disease : subcortical leukoencephalopathy, is a form of small vessel vascular dementia caused by damage to the white brain matter.

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BMD

Becker's muscular dystrophy : is an X-linked recessive inherited disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness of the legs and pelvis.

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BPD

Borderline personality disorder : also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder, is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstab

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BS

Bloom's syndrome : also known as Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, predisposition to the development of cancer and genomic inst

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BSE

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy : is a fatal neurodegenerative disease (encephalopathy) in cattle that causes a spongy degeneration of the brain and spinal cord. BSE has a long incubation period, of

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BSS

Brown–Sequard syndrome : is caused by damage to one half of the spinal cord, resulting in paralysis and loss of proprioception on the same (or ipsilateral) side as the injury or lesion, and loss

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BV

Bacterial vaginosis :  is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria. Common symptoms include increased vaginal discharge that often smells like fish. The discharge is usually

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CAD

Coronary artery disease :  is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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CADASIL

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with sub-cortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy

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CAPD

Central auditory processing disorder :  is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information.

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CCHF

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever :  It is a zoonotic disease carried by several domestic and wild animals.

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CCHS

Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome : is a respiratory disorder that results in respiratory arrest during sleep.

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CCM

Cerebral cavernous malformation :  is a type of blood vessel malformation or hemangioma, where a collection of dilated blood vessels form a benign tumor.

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CDG

Congenital disorder of glycosylation : is one of several rare inborn errors of metabolism in which glycosylation of a variety of tissue proteins and/or lipids is deficient or defective.

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CDGS

Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome : is one of several rare inborn errors of metabolism in which glycosylation of a variety of tissue proteins and/or lipids is deficient or defective.

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CEP

Congenital erythropoietic porphyria : Gunther disease,  is a congenital form of erythropoietic porphyria.  It is a rare, autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting heme, caused by defi

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CESD

Cholesteryl ester storage disease

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CF

Cystic fibrosis :  is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.

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CFS

Chronic fatigue syndrome : is a medical condition characterized by long-term fatigue and other symptoms that limit a person's ability to carry out ordinary daily activities.

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CHD

Congenital heart disease : is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.

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CHD

Congenital hip dysplasia : is a congenital or developmental deformation or misalignment of the hip joint.

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CHD

Coronary heart disease

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CIDP

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy : is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system. 

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CIPA

Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis : is an extremely rare inherited disorder of the nervous system which prevents the sensation of pain, heat, cold, or any real nerve-related sensations

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CJD

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease : is an incurable and universally fatal neurodegenerative disease.

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CMs

Chiari malformations : also known as Arnold–Chiari malformation,  it, is a malformation of the skull. are structural defects in the cerebellum. They consist of a downward displacement of th

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CMT disease

Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease :  is one of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, a group of varied inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system characterised by progres

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COFS

Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome : is a rare and fatal autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by growth failure, impaired development of the nervous system, abnormal sensiti

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COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term poor airflow.

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CP

Cerebral Palsy : is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Signs and symptoms vary among people. Often, symptoms include poor coordination, stiff muscles, weak muscles

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CP/CPPS

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome :  is a pelvic pain condition in men, and should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as chronic bacterial prostatitis and acute

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CPDD

Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease : also known as pseudogout and pyrophosphate arthropathy is a rheumatologic disorder with varied symptoms and signs arising from the accumulation of crystals o

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CPM

Central pontine myelinolysis :  is a neurological disease caused by severe damage of the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the brainstem, more precisely in the area termed the pons, predominately o

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AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

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CRF

Chronic renal failure :  is progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years.

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CRPS

Complex regional pain syndrome :  is a long term condition that often worsens with time. It is characterized by severe pain and sensitivity, swelling, and changes in the skin.

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CSA

Central sleep apnea :  is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is diminished or absent, typically for 10 to 30 seconds either intermittently or in cycles, and is usually associ

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CSD

Cat scratch disease : is a common and usually benign infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae.

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CVD

Cardiovascular disease : is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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DAS

Developmental apraxia of speech : is when children have problems saying sounds, syllables, and words.

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DBA

Diamond–Blackfan anemia : is a congenital erythroid aplasia that usually presents in infancy.

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DD

Developmental disability : is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments. 

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DEF

Deaf :  is a partial or total inability to hear.

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DF

Dengue fever :  is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.

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DH

Developmentally handicapped : is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments.

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DIG

DiGeorge syndrome : is a syndrome caused by the deletion of a small segment of chromosome 22.

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DISH

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis :  is a non-inflammatory spondyloarthropathy of the spine.

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DLB

Dementia with Lewy bodies : is a type of dementia that worsens over time.

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DM

Diabetes mellitus : is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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DS

Down syndrome :  trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.It is typically associated with physical growth delays, characteristic fa

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DSPS

Delayed sleep phase syndrome :  is a chronic dysregulation of a person's circadian rhythm (biological clock), compared to the general population and relative to societal norms. 

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DTs

Delirium tremens :  is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol. When it occurs, it is often three days into the withdrawal symptoms and lasts for two to three days.

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DVD

Developmental verbal dyspraxia :  is when children have problems saying sounds, syllables, and words.

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DVT

Deep vein thrombosis : is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within a deep vein, amost commonly the legs. Nonspecific signs may include pain, swelling, redness, warmness, and engorged superficia

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ED

Emotionally disturbed : a disability classification used in educational settings that allows educational institutions to provide special education and related services to students that have poor socia

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EDS

Ehlers–Danlos syndrome : is a group of genetic connective tissue disorders. Symptoms can vary from mildly loose joints to life-threatening complications such as aortic dissection. Chronic pain o

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EDS

Excessive daytime sleepiness : is characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep.

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